. In some cases a piece of bark was
removed from a tree south of the grave and marks similar
to the cicatrices on the chest of the deceased were cut
into the bark (Dunbar, 1943:14)
I wrote a blog about mombarai back in Feb 2018 but have recently found a TinT with 2 or possibly 3 “eagle” marks. I have seen this mark a few times now around the camps & even over on Wailwun land. The mark looks a bit like the Nike tick but I think it’s the sign for the eagle totem
Eagle at the Moonal hole some years ago
Here is the Rosewood TinT at the moonal hole along the Walgett – Cumborah songline (Gingie Rd) ..
This is a very old camp as you can see by this double ring tree (also dead) about 300 metres away.
Maira, a paddy melon, claims as multiplex totems—
Wahn THE CROW
Mullyan THE EAGLE-HAWK
Oonaywah BLACK DIVER
Gunundar WHILE DIVER
Birriebungar SMALL DIVER
Mouninguggahgui MOSQUITO BIRD
Bullah Bullah BUTTERFLIES
Tucki A KIND OF BREAM
Beewerh BONY BREAM
Gulbarlee SHINGLEBACK LIZARD
Wayarah WILD GRAPES
Gooroongoodilbaydilbay SOUTH WIND.
Langloh Parker says “The totem kins numerically strongest with us were the Dinewans (emu), Beewees (brown & yellow goanna), Bohrahs (kangaroo), and Gouyous (bandicoot). Further back in the country, they tell me, the crow, the eaglehawk, and the bees were original totems, not multiplex ones, as with us.”
Langloh Parker goes on to say “The totem system is part of the whole marriage laws – that the Euahlayi are in the Kamilaroi stage of social organisation. They reckon descent in the female line: they have ‘phratries’ and four matrimonial classes, with totems within the phratries. In their system of ‘multiplex-totems’ or ‘sub-totems’ they resemble the Wotjobaluk tribe. [Howitt, NATIVE TRIBES OF SOUTH-EAST AUSTRALIA, pp. 121, 125, 453, 455.] The essence of the ‘sub-totem’ system is the division of all things into the categories provided by the social system of the human society.”
ITEM 02: KAMILAROI, AND OTHER AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES, BY REV. WILLIAM RIDLEY, 2ND ED. (SYDNEY, 1875) – PAGE 148